BACKGROUND Studies on individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs) indicate that primary care staff are potential attachment figures. Therefore, the ability to interpret and respond to attachment behaviours with sensitivity is crucial for professionals working with adults with IDs. However, little is known regarding representations and understanding of these attachment behaviours among professionals. This study investigated […]
Objective To investigate mental health needs and barriers to seeking mental health support in Medicaid funded Assisted Living Facility (M-ALF). Design A multimethod, qualitative-dominant descriptive design using questionnaires and semistructured interviews. Setting and Participants The study occurred at a M-ALF in the Bronx, New York. A researcher in residence recruited 13 residents (11 Black or […]
Individual state approaches to assisted living/residential care (AL/RC) licensing and oversight in the United States result in different practice standards and requirements, including psychotropic medication use. We examined 170 psychotropic medication deficiency citations issued to 152 Oregon AL/RC settings from 2015 to 2019. Applied thematic analysis resulted in the following themes: (1) documentation issues are […]
Objectives To examine the relationship between AL communities’ distance to the nearest hospital and residents’ rates of emergency department (ED) use. We hypothesize that when access to an ED is more convenient, as measured by a shorter distance, assisted living (AL)-to-ED transfers are more common, particularly for nonemergent conditions. Design Retrospective cohort study, where the […]
Background Potentially burdensome transitions at the end of life (e.g., repeated hospitalizations toward the end of life and/or health care transitions in the last three days of life) are common among residential care/assisted living (RC/AL) residents, and are associated with lower quality of end of-life care reported by bereaved family members. We examined the association […]
Objectives Limitations to admission play a critical role in shaping the composition of residents residing within licensed assisted living (AL) communities. Design We document variation across 165 licensure classifications in how state agencies limit who AL communities may admit and what assessments are required to make those determinations. Setting and Participants AL regulations and licensed […]
Objectives Online reviews provided by users of assisted living communities may offer a unique source of heretofore unexamined data. We explored online reviews as a possible source of information about these communities and examined the association between the reviews and aspects of state regulations, while controlling for assisted living, county, and state market-level factors. Design […]
Objectives We examined the frequency and categories of end-of-life care transitions among assisted living community decedents and their associations with state staffing and training regulations. Design Cohort study. Setting and Participants Medicare beneficiaries who resided in assisted living facilities and had validated death dates in 2018-2019 (N = 113,662). Methods We used Medicare claims and assessment […]
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: This study used Medicare enrollment and claims records to examine more than 142,000 AL residents’ ability to stay in their community in the last 30 days of life. Residents who were eligible for both Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) were much less likely than those not eligible for Medicaid to remain in AL in their last 30 days of life or die there. However, this difference varies by state.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: In this study, undergraduate nursing students implemented a 6-week Fall Prevention Care Management intervention for 25 residents in two AL communities. The intervention included individualized care using motivational interviewing and behavioral change related to fall prevention, as well as helping residents reflect on their perceptions of fall prevention. Qualitative analysis suggested that individualized support improved residents’ opinions of the intervention and facilitated participation for residents at high risk of falls.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: This study used Medicare and CDC datasets to examine telemedicine primary care among 62,000 AL residents with dementia during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020). During the first three quarters of the pandemic, racially minoritized groups (Black, Hispanic) and Medicare-Medicaid dual eligibles were able to successfully use telemedicine at high rates. Gaps in primary care access between these groups and others (white, non-Medicaid eligible) were reduced due to telemedicine. This could inform CMS decisions about Medicare coverage for telemedicine primary care.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: A new methodology was developed for identifying Medicare beneficiaries residing in licensed AL communities in the US using zip code data, Medicare enrollment data, and claims data, and exclusion based on AL capacity (licensing information). Results suggested that using licensing information makes identifying AL residents receiving Medicare more accurate, which could inform research and policy by providing new insights into the health of AL residents.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: Interviews were conducted with 38 older adults in rural villages and AL communities in the Netherlands to compare the effect of social frailty, measured by access to social resources and activities that fulfill social needs. Social frailty is the actual or potential loss of social resources and activities over time, leading to loneliness and isolation. Older adults who live independently in their own communities experienced self-reported loneliness, while those living in AL communities reported higher participation in social activities. Therefore, for some older adults, a residential setting may be preferable to aging in place to address loneliness and social frailty.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: A survey about AL family caregiver experiences in Western Canada was conducted before and during waves one (Mar to Jun 2020) and two (Oct 2020 to Feb 2021) of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 386 family caregivers representing 110 AL communities participated. In-person visits and caregiver involvement decreased significantly during wave one of the pandemic due to visitor restrictions. Caregivers’ concerns about their relatives significantly increased during both waves, especially when they did not feel well-informed or involved in their relative’s care.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: This study of almost 21,000 AL residents in 2017 revealed that those with dementia were prescribed antipsychotics during about 13% of their time residing in AL. This proportion varied by state, with Hawaii having the lowest prescription rate (8%), and Wyoming having the highest (21%). Variations may be due to state regulation of AL communities, but the study was not able to determine if prescription practices were appropriate and tied to health outcomes.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: Face-to-face interviews with healthcare professionals, group meetings, and participant observation were used to examine interprofessional care teamwork in one community that combines independent living, AL, and skilled nursing. Organizational context, care setting factors, and reimbursement programs like Medicare and Medicaid affected teamwork in different ways; for example, co-location of services in a building did not necessarily ensure teamwork among care providers. Additionally, mission-driven investment in care was not sufficient to ensure teamwork. Thus, teamwork in communities that have different levels of care must be specifically considered when creating organizational policies and procedures.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: Because AL is state-regulated, obtaining information about Medicare beneficiaries in AL can be difficult. This study identified AL Medicare beneficiaries using zip code files, Medicare databases, and other data sets, which can aid researchers and policymakers.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: There is a persisting staffing shortage in long-term care, and the use of robots in AL shows promise in relieving some staffing pressures. This systematic review found benefits of using robots to improve social interaction, emotional regulation, and fall prevention; however, some studies found barriers to robot use and inconclusive results. Overall, the quality of many of the studies was questionable, and more rigorous studies are needed to understand the impact of robots on AL staff and residents.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: The Houston Health Department conducted onsite assessments at AL communities to assess infection prevention and control practices. Larger AL communities better implemented CDC guidelines and were more proactive in their COVID-19 response activities. For example, many medium and small communities lacked access to COVID-19 PCR testing and had lower resident vaccination rates.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: A study in AL and other long-term care communities in Alberta assessed nurses’ and professional care aides’ physical, mental, and emotional health, behavior, stress, quality of life, turnover, and absenteeism. Mental and emotional health, quality of life, and stress related to turnover and absenteeism. Although 68% of caregivers reported being satisfied with their general health, they experienced heavy workloads and high stress. These issues may result in decreased job satisfaction, absenteeism, and higher turnover.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: A study in Florida assessed a staff education intervention in 10 different AL communities, in which 118 AL residents with dementia participated. The intervention focused on person-centered palliative care for residents with dementia. It showed initial positive results by increasing palliative care practices, specifically advance care planning discussions and hospice admissions.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: About 25% of Medicare beneficiaries in AL are also eligible for Medicaid, 78% of whom lived in 20% of AL communities nationally. This study analyzed 47 state policies, 5 of which had no Medicaid coverage for AL services (put abbreviations of the five states here). However, those states had the highest concentration of Medicaid-eligible people residing in AL, meaning that Medicaid coverage in those 5 states could benefit many residents.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: In a study gathering recommendations from AL residents about a program to increase physical activity. most residents were interested in increasing their activity and thought of it as being important. However, they had concerns about the program’s level of difficulty, the length of sessions, and how the end goals were framed. Thus, it is vital to elicit feedback from residents when designing a new program in AL.
WHAT THIS MEANS FOR YOU: Vaccines are a part of the solution to infectious disease outbreaks like COVID-19, but not everyone is getting them, especially older adults. In a Canadian study, pneumonia vaccine uptake was improved by providing assisted living and long-term care communities with vaccine coverage data and providing automatic reminders for subsequent doses. Therefore, a cloud-based digital vaccination record is one solution to promote the uptake of adult vaccines for older adults, as well as tracking immunization records and sharing them with policymaking organizations. This can improve communication and inform policymakers to reduce the risk of infection in AL communities.