Depression is common within the first year of relocation to residential care/assisted living (RC/AL). Yet, few studies investigate the relationship between depression and relocation factors that might help identify at-risk residents, such as previous location. This study analyzed cross-sectional resident data (n = 2651) from the National Survey of Residential Care Facilities to test: (1) group differences between residents relocating from acute/post-acute facilities (e.g., hospital, rehabilitation facility) and community-based residences, and (2) the relationship between previous location and depression within the first year of relocation. The 921 (35%) residents relocating directly from acute/post-acute facilities were more likely to have depression (p < .001) and poorer outcomes on select health and psychosocial variables. After controlling for covariates, relocating directly from an acute/post-acute facility significantly related to depression (OR = 1.22). Findings highlight opportunities to improve routine screening and transitional care for this subpopulation of RC/AL residents at heightened risk for depression.